Bird feeders were the most common wildlife feature in the surveyed gardens of Belfast. Food availability is the main factor influencing the distribution of bird population with supplementary feeding adding to its effect. In urban areas where tree and hedge cover is limited due to development and habitat fragmentation, the presence of food is a primary driver for the structure of bird populations (Galbraith et al., 2015).
Evans et al,. (2011) concluded that local factors within urban areas such as habitat diversity and fragmentation were predominantly more important than factors of a bigger scale for species diversity. Forested areas and supplementary feeding positively correlated with bird populations as exhibited in Belvoir Drive and Adelaide Park of Belfast (Figs. 3.7 and 3.8).
As urbanisation increases many species of birds have been forced to adapt to developed areas and isolated habitats. For most urban locations the same bird species are regarded as common or occasional visitors with the most common being the robin and the magpie (Figs 7.3-7.13). These species have undergone the process of synanthropy whereby they have developed a relationship with humans in order to persist in predominately human environments (Unknown, 2015). Previous studies have found that magpie population numbers actually decrease along the urban-rural gradient (Unknown, 2015). However this was not evident for the city of Belfast as almost every surveyed resident along this gradient recorded magpies as common. Like red foxes magpies are generalist species which have a varied diet. They have successfully adapted to the urban jungle nesting and foraging in the residential gardens of Belfast.
Hermy and Claessens (2011) also found evidence of a positive correlation between garden size and species diversity in five UK cities. They found that there was a relationship with housing type and garden size with detached houses (Like those of Wilmont Park) occupying the largest plot of land and terraced houses occupying the smallest. They stated that tree cover increased with garden size creating an area of greater habitat diversity. This was observed for Wilmont Park as more than a quarter of the land cover for each surveyed property of consisted of tree and hedge cover. This contrasted with the terraced houses of Belvoir Drive, Kilwarlin Walk and Kilwarlin Crescent where the average tree and hedge cover was only 9% (Table 7.2). These findings correlated with the difference in the number red fox sightings and the ratio of impermeable to permeable boundaries between these areas. Wilmont Park had a higher density of permeable boundaries that allowed for greater habitat connectivity for wildlife (Table 3.2 and Fig. 7.1).
This correlation was evident for the detached houses of the rural area which occupied relatively large gardens. With a garden size larger than most urban and suburban survey locations the highest number of bird species regarded as common visitors were recorded here, as mentioned in Section 4.2.
Successful application of IPM requires knowledge and ingenuity. The pest's life cycle, behavior, and natural enemies; the influence of planting patterns and chemical use on pest and predator populations; and many other aspects of the agricultural ecosystem must be understood in depth. IPM offers several benefits, including a decreased reliance on costly chemicals, reduced health risk from exposure to chemicals (either during pesticide application or by contamination of groundwater supplies), and diminished impacts on nontarget wildlife populations. Farmers adopting IPM have been shown to spend less money on pest control. For example, the Texas cotton farmers mentioned previously had net returns per hectare averaging $282 higher than other cotton farmers (Postel 1987).
Wildlife on continents such as Africa is particularly vulnerable to pressure from commercial activity because Africa’s population is expanding faster than any other continent and it is rich is natural resources which are being exploited by foreign powers involved in mass manufacturing. Access to minerals etc. results in mining activity which destroys the habitat of many species including the cheetah. Forests are logged to make way for palm oil plantations, which removes the habitat of the elusive African golden cat.
Essay on conservation of forests and wildlife
The purpose of wildlife conservation is to protect wild flora and fauna against the encroachment of expanding human activity. The planet’s human population grew by 1.6 billion people between 1990 and 2010 (30% growth rate). The ever increasing amount of commercial activity that this brings with associated use and abuse of the earth’s resources damages the prospects of survival of wild flora and fauna.
Sikkim photo essay Essay on Wildlife Conservation
Forests and wildlife and renewable resources which need to be diligently protected, preserved and increased in a planned way. There is a need to spread the awareness about forest and wildlife conservation. Social forestry can be taught in schools as a subject.
420 words essay on Let Us Save the Wildlife
The drastic decline of wildlife is not really surprising, considering the attitudes of most people living in this era. Nature was regarded as something that got in the way of civilization and "progress"; it had to be tamed and controlled. Thus popular nature books of the era were filled with drawings of animals doing nasty things to people or to each other: bears clawing hunters, eagles carrying off children, deer goring one another, landcrabs attacking goats (Figure 1.2).