b) 18 th Century Feminism in Britain and the US:

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advocate women's rights, , and grounded within an Islamic framework. Advocates seek to highlight the deeply rooted teachings of equality in the and encourage a questioning of the patriarchal interpretation of Islamic teaching through the Quran, (sayings of ), and (law) towards the creation of a more equal and just society. Although rooted in Islam, the movement's pioneers have also utilized and Western feminist discourses and recognize the role of Islamic feminism as part of an integrated global feminist movement.

is a branch of feminist theology which seeks to interpret and understand Christianity in light of the of and men, and that this interpretation is necessary for a complete understanding of Christianity. While there is no standard set of beliefs among Christian feminists, most agree that God does not discriminate on the basis of sex, and are involved in issues such as the , male dominance and the balance of parenting in , claims of moral deficiency and inferiority of women compared to men, and the overall treatment of women in the church. The Christian in positions of authority in 4:4 and 22:14.[]

Feminist theology is a movement that reconsiders the traditions, practices, scriptures, and theologies of religions from a feminist perspective. Some of the goals of feminist theology include increasing the role of women among the clergy and religious authorities, reinterpreting male-dominated imagery and language about God, determining women's place in relation to career and motherhood, and studying images of women in the religion's sacred texts.

"This is radical feminist theory at its best: clear, careful and critical."--

Previous legislations were criticized by feminist movements as oblivious to gender differences; categorical in defining women in sexist ways; and common in undertaking prejudice studies on women as law breakers, victims and servants of the American Justice system. What provided the breakthrough of feminism in the justice system was the bold indulgence in the political and policy world. In this respect, new issues have been created in areas of deviance control, and conformity of different gender aspects.

Feminism, Marxism, Method, and the State: An Agenda for Theory

Law has been central in complimenting the works of feminist movements. Feminist lawyers have been on the forefront in complimenting the efforts. As a result, various assumptions existing in the society regarding gender roles have been challenged in the recent past. In fact, the process of law making, steered by feminist lawyers has brought to light the experiences women go through; such as intimate violence and sexual abuse to unravel the complexity that cultural dynamics concealed. Feminist advocates and lawyers have therefore used women's' experiences as the root for the development of legal doctrines in courts, legislature and even classrooms (Docstoc, 2010).

Archimedes and the Paradox of Feminist Criticism

Keywords Epistemology; Feminist Theory; Functionalism; Gender; Marxism; Paradigm; Patriarchy; Sex

Is there any point, then, to asking what feminism is? Given thecontroversies over the term and the politics of circumscribing theboundaries of a social movement, it is sometimes tempting to thinkthat the best we can do is to articulate a set of disjuncts thatcapture a range of feminist beliefs. However, at the same time it canbe both intellectually and politically valuable to have a schematicframework that enables us to map at least some of our points ofagreement and disagreement. We'll begin here by considering some ofthe basic elements of feminism as a political position or set ofbeliefs. For a survey of different philosophical approaches tofeminism, see “Feminism, approaches to”.

a) Feminism and the Civil Rights Movement.

As mentioned above, there are a variety of interpretations--feminist and otherwise--of what exactly oppression consists in, but the leading idea is that oppression consists in "an enclosing structure of forces and barriers which tends to the immobilization and reduction of a group or category of people (Frye 1983, 10-11). Not just any "enclosing structure" is oppressive, however, for plausibly any process of socialization will create a structure that both limits and enables all individuals who live within it. In the case of oppression, however, the "enclosing structures" in question are part of a broader system that asymmetrically and unjustly disadvantages one group and benefits another. So, e.g., although sexism restricts the opportunities available to—and so unquestionably harms--both men and women (and considering some pairwise comparisons may even have a greater negative impact on a man than a woman), overall, women as a group unjustly suffer the greater harm. It is a crucial feature of contemporary accounts, however, that one cannot assume that members of the privileged group have intentionally designed or maintained the system for their benefit. The oppressive structure may be the result of an historical process whose originators are long gone, or it may be the unintended result of complex cooperative strategies gone wrong.


An essay or paper on History of feminism. History of feminism and feminist theory. The history of feminism and of feminist theory has many possible origins.

One strategy for solving these problems would be to identify feminismin terms of a set of ideas or beliefs rather than participation in anyparticular political movement. As we saw above, this also has theadvantage of allowing us to locate isolated feminists whose work wasnot understood or appreciated during their time. But how should we goabout identifying a core set of feminist beliefs? Some would suggestthat we should focus on the political ideas that the term wasapparently coined to capture, viz., the commitment to women's equalrights. This acknowledges that commitment to and advocacy for women'srights has not been confined to the Women's Liberation Movement in theWest. But this too raises controversy, for it frames feminism within abroadly Liberal approach to political and economic life. Although mostfeminists would probably agree that there is some sense of“rights” on which achieving equal rights for women is anecessary condition for feminism to succeed, most would also arguethat this would not be sufficient. This is because women's oppressionunder male domination rarely if ever consists solely in deprivingwomen of political and legal “rights”, but also extendsinto the structure of our society and the content of our culture, andpermeates our consciousness (e.g., Bartky 1990).

History and Development of Feminist Theory essay …

Gendering happens through constant reiterative behavior whereby earlier reiterations are cited in support of present behavior, thoughts, and words and produce the materiality of the body. “Real men don’t . . . ; real women should.” All of this is not socially constructed once and for all but, rather, involves a contingent, fragmented set of processes that permit agency, social change, and resistance at each moment. We may feel ourselves to be male, female, masculine, feminine, gay, and straight in the depths of our being but the meaning of these concepts is neither unified nor unchanging.